There are several types of Distributed Denial of Service (DDoS) attacks, each with its own characteristics and methods. Here are some common types of DDoS attacks:
1.Volumetric Attacks: These attacks aim to overwhelm a target’s network bandwidth by sending a massive volume of traffic. They can saturate the target’s internet connection, making legitimate traffic unable to reach its destination. Examples include UDP flooding and ICMP flooding.
2.TCP State Exhaustion Attacks: These attacks focus on exploiting the stateful nature of TCP (Transmission Control Protocol). By initiating a large number of TCP connections, attackers can exhaust the target’s resources, such as available ports or memory, rendering the service inaccessible.
3.Application Layer Attacks: Also known as Layer 7 attacks, these target the application layer of the OSI model. They aim to exhaust the server’s processing capacity by sending a high volume of requests that mimic legitimate user interactions. Examples include HTTP/HTTPS flooding and Slowloris attacks.
4.Protocol Attacks: These attacks exploit weaknesses in networking protocols, such as the Internet Control Message Protocol (ICMP) and the User Datagram Protocol (UDP). Attackers can flood the target with malformed or excessive protocol-specific packets, causing service disruptions.
5.DNS Amplification Attacks: Attackers send a small DNS query to a vulnerable DNS server, which then responds with a much larger reply, effectively amplifying the attack traffic. This can lead to a massive traffic flood directed at the target.
6.NTP Amplification Attacks: Similar to DNS amplification, Network Time Protocol (NTP) amplification attacks exploit vulnerable NTP servers to amplify the attack traffic.
7.SYN/ACK Attacks: These attacks exploit the TCP three-way handshake process. Attackers send a flood of SYN (synchronize) packets, overwhelming the target’s resources as it attempts to establish connections.
8.HTTP Flood Attacks: Attackers send a high volume of legitimate-looking HTTP requests to a web server, overwhelming its resources and making it unavailable to legitimate users.
9.Slowloris Attacks: This attack type sends a large number of partial HTTP requests, keeping them open without completing them. Holding numerous connections open, it can exhaust the web server’s available resources.
10.Ping Flood Attacks: Attackers send a flood of ping requests (ICMP Echo Requests) to a target, consuming its network bandwidth and potentially causing network congestion.
11.Zero-Day Attacks: These attacks exploit vulnerabilities in network devices, operating systems, or software for which there are no known patches or fixes. They can be especially damaging because they target unpatched vulnerabilities.
12.Application Layer Attacks: These attacks focus on targeting specific applications or services, often exploiting vulnerabilities unique to the application being targeted.
DDoS attacks can combine elements from different types to create more sophisticated and effective attack strategies. To defend against these attacks, organizations typically use a combination of mitigation techniques, including traffic filtering, rate limiting, and the use of specialized DDoS mitigation services.